We actively participate in the residency and fellowship training program of various departments, including Pathology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, by providing 1-4 weeks rotation in the cytogenetics laboratory. These rotations are designed to familiarize the the resident/fellow with the procedures carried out in the cytogenetics laboratory, their application to clinical cases, and the roles of classical and molecular cytogenetics in clinical practice. Additional exposure is provided depending on their medical specialty and interest. For example, hematopathology fellows work extensively with the cases involving blood and marrow samples from patients with leukemia or lymphoma. They are given a checklist of the procedures to follow and given a pretest and posttest to evaluate their progress.


  1. To review recent articles and text from the cytogenetics literature, to become familiar with the fields of genetics and cytogenetics, cytogenetic methods, and applications to clinical medicine. Hematopathology fellows concentrate particularly on hematology/oncology/bone marrow transplantation aspects.
  2. To read the laboratory procedure manual to understand the rationale of procedures and the basic safety precautions practiced in the laboratory.
  3. To observe the basic laboratory procedures: cell culture initiation, harvest, banding, chromosome analysis, and karyotyping.
  4. To practice karyotyping and interpret the results of this effort in the form of a cytogenetics report.
  5. To scan G-banded slides on the microscope to compare the results of PHA-stimulated peripheral blood with unstimulated blood and bone marrow cultures to understand the band resolution levels obtained by different sample types.
  6. To review the files of interesting cases to observe the longitudinal changes in karyotypes over the course of treatment and to see how various cytogenetic findings are interpreted.
  7. Didactically review cases with the Laboratory Director and/or Associate Directors during the process of sign out. The fellows are expected to write a few reports and encouraged to present and/or work on a case report for publication.


  1. Learn the indications for cytogenetic testing
  2. Be able to interpret cytogenetic reports.
  3. Know the common cytogenetic abnormalities observed in various sample types.
  4. Understand how the different types of cytogenetic tests are performed and interpreted